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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Genetic Modification of Human Characteristics and Capacities in View of Ethics and Jurisprudence
        Akram  Safiri Zahrasadat  Mirhashemi
        Abstract: Genetic technology and its application on man is one of the newly discovered scientific issues that helps genetic modification of human forces and capacities to change him into a super-human. Genetic modification of human capacities is creating a change, alter Full Text
        Abstract: Genetic technology and its application on man is one of the newly discovered scientific issues that helps genetic modification of human forces and capacities to change him into a super-human. Genetic modification of human capacities is creating a change, altering or genetically modifying human genes so that some organs function beyond natural limits of humans. Genetic modification does not pursue treatment of people with certain diseases; rather, it reinforces genetic characteristics of a healthy human. The general ethical codes and principles as well as the rule of wisdom that are based on the advantages and disadvantages of using this technology, serve as guidelines for us in issuing an ethical rule on reinforcing human capacities through this technology. To that end, this paper intends to have access to a crystal clear ethical rule on genetic modification based on ethics and Fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence. We will study genetic modification of human capacities by genetic selection of the embryo in comparison with genetic modification of human capacities through genetic recombinant. In the meantime, we will discuss in detail the disadvantages and damages coming from genetic modification, highlight its unethical manners and propose its prohibition by law. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Fundamentals of “Principle of Unconditionality of Commercial Paper Obligations” in Iran’s Jurisprudence and Law
        Akram  Safiri Farzaneh  Karimi
        Abstract: The role commercial papers play in transactions and economic relations is this that they are appropriate substitutes for cash in payments. Along with easy, fast and safe transfer and turn-over, they guarantee the rights of the owner as well. Realization of thi Full Text
        Abstract: The role commercial papers play in transactions and economic relations is this that they are appropriate substitutes for cash in payments. Along with easy, fast and safe transfer and turn-over, they guarantee the rights of the owner as well. Realization of this will be possible when obligations of the signatories of the papers are expressed absolutely and clearly, not conditioned to anything else. The prerequisites calling for unconditionality of commercial papers are considered among the fundamentals of this principle, which we have studied in this paper in two sections of “legal requirements” (the need for using commercial papers instead of cash, the need for meeting speed, ease and security in carrying and transfer of commercial papers and the need for protecting the rights of the commercial paper owners) and “jurisprudential requirements” (exigency of protecting property and preventing disruption in economic system). Manuscript Document